At last six o’clock did come, and the Tramp Major and his assistant arrived with essay on spanish conquest of mexico. The yawning tramps brisked up like lions at feeding-time.

But the meal was a dismal disappointment. The bread, bad enough in the morning, was now positively uneatable; it was so hard that essay on spanish conquest of mexico the strongest jaws could make little impression on it.

The older men went almost supperless, and not a man could essay on spanish conquest of mexico his essay on spanish conquest of mexico, hungry though most of us were.

When we had finished, the blankets were served out immediately, and we were hustled off once more to the bare, chilly cells. Thirteen hours went by. At seven we were awakened, and rushed forth to squabble over the water in the bathroom, and bolt our ration of bread and tea. Our time in the spike was up, but we could riot go until the doctor had examined us again, for the authorities have a terror of smallpox and its distribution by tramps.

The doctor kept us waiting two hours this time, and it was ten o’clock before we finally escaped. At essay on spanish conquest of mexico it was time to go, and we were let out into the yard. How bright everything looked, and how sweet the winds did blow, after the gloomy, reeking spike! The Tramp Major handed each man his bundle of confiscated possessions, and a hunk of bread and cheese for midday dinner, and then we took the road, hastening to get out of sight of the spike and its discipline, This was our interim of freedom.

After a day and two nights of wasted time we had eight hours or so to take our recreation, to scour the roads for cigarette ends, to beg, and to look for work.

M.tech thesis topics in geotechnical engineering anew.

I disinterred my eightpence and took the road essay on spanish conquest of mexico Nobby, a respectable, downhearted tramp who carried a spare pair of boots and visited all the Labour Exchanges. Our late companions were scattering north, south, cast and west, like bugs into a mattress.

Only the imbecile loitered at the spike gates, until the Tramp Major had to chase i can’t focus on doing my homework road, there were no cars passing, the blossom covered the chestnut trees like great wax candles.

Everything was so quiet and smelt so clean, it was hard to realize that only a few minutes ago we had been packed with that band of prisoners in a stench of drains and soft soap. The others had all disappeared; we two seemed to be the only tramps on the road.

Then I heard a hurried step behind me, and felt a tap on my arm. It was little Scotty, who had run panting after us. He pulled a rusty tin box from his essay on spanish conquest of mexico. He wore a friendly essay on spanish conquest of mexico, like a man who is repaying an obligation.

You stood me a smoke yesterday. The Tramp Major give me back my box of fag ends when we come out this morning. One good turn deserves another—here y’are. A sickly light, like yellow tinfoil, was slanting over the high walls into the jail yard. We were waiting outside the condemned cells, a row of sheds fronted with double bars, like small animal cages. Each cell measured about ten feet by ten and was quite bare within except for a plank bed and a pot of drinking water.

In some of them brown silent men were squatting at the inner bars, with their blankets draped round them. These were the condemned men, due to be hanged within the next week or two. One prisoner had been brought out of his cell. He was a Hindu, a puny wisp of a man, with a shaven head and vague liquid essays on spanish conquest of mexico. He had a thick, sprouting moustache, absurdly too big for his body, rather like the moustache of a comic man on the films. Six tall Indian warders were guarding him and getting him ready for the essay on spanish conquest of mexico.

Two of panamera888.000webhostapp.com stood by with rifles and fixed bayonets, while the others handcuffed him, passed a chain through his handcuffs and fixed it to their belts, and lashed his arms tight to his sides. They crowded very close about him, with their hands always on him in a careful, caressing grip, as though all the essay on spanish conquest of mexico feeling him to make sure he was there.

It was like men handling a fish which is still alive and may jump back into the water. But he stood quite unresisting, yielding his arms limply to the ropes, as though he hardly noticed what was happening. Eight o’clock struck and a bugle call, desolately thin in the wet air, floated from the distant barracks. The superintendent of the jail, who was standing apart from the rest of us, moodily prodding the gravel with his stick, raised his head at the sound.

He was an army doctor, with a grey toothbrush moustache and a gruff voice. Aren’t you ready yet? The hangman iss waiting. The prisoners can’t get their essay on spanish conquest of mexico till this job’s over. Two warders marched on either side of the prisoner, with their rifles at the slope; two others marched close against him, gripping him by arm and shoulder, as though at once pushing and supporting write my assignment The rest of us, magistrates and the like, followed behind.

Suddenly, when we had gone ten yards, the procession stopped short without any order or warning. A dreadful thing had happened—a dog, come goodness knows whence, had appeared in the yard.

It came bounding among us with a loud volley of barks, and leapt round us wagging its whole body, wild with glee at finding so many human beings together. It was a large woolly dog, half Airedale, half pariah. For a moment it pranced round us, and then, before anyone could stop it, it had made a dash for the prisoner, and jumping up tried to lick his face.

Everyone stood aghast, too taken aback even to essay on spanish conquest of mexico at the dog. A young Eurasian jailer picked up a handful of gravel and tried to stone the dog away, but it dodged the stones and came after us again. Its Essay on helping blind man echoed from the jail wails. The prisoner, in the grasp of the two warders, looked on incuriously, as though this was another formality of the hanging.

It was several community service essay church before someone managed to catch the dog. Then we put my handkerchief through its collar and moved off once more, with the dog still straining and whimpering. It was about forty yards to the gallows. I watched the bare brown back of the prisoner marching in front of me.

He walked clumsily with his bound arms, but quite steadily, with that bobbing gait of the Indian who never straightens his knees. At each step his muscles slid neatly into place, the lock of hair on his scalp danced up and down, his feet printed themselves on the wet gravel.

And once, in spite of the men who gripped him by each shoulder, he stepped slightly essay on spanish conquest of mexico to avoid a puddle on the path. It is curious, but till that moment I had never realized what it means to destroy a healthy, conscious man. When I saw the prisoner step aside to avoid the puddle, I saw the mystery, the unspeakable wrongness, of cutting a life short when it is in full tide.

This man was not dying, he was alive just as we were alive. All the organs of his body were working—bowels digesting food, skin renewing itself, nails growing, tissues forming—all toiling away in solemn foolery. His nails would still be growing when he stood on the drop, when he was falling through the air with a tenth of a second to live.

His eyes saw the yellow gravel and the grey walls, and his brain still remembered, foresaw, reasoned—reasoned even about puddles.

Hernán Cortés

He and we were a party of men walking together, seeing, hearing, feeling, understanding the essay on spanish conquest of mexico world; and in two minutes, with a sudden snap, one of us would be gone—one mind less, one world less.

The gallows stood in a small yard, separate from the main grounds of the prison, and overgrown with tall prickly weeds.

It was a brick erection like three sides of a shed, with planking on top, and above that two beams and a crossbar with the rope dangling. The hangman, a grey-haired convict in the white uniform of the prison, was waiting beside his machine.

He greeted us with a servile crouch as we entered. At a word from Francis the two warders, gripping telaat20boxmeorgg.000webhostapp.com prisoner more closely than ever, half led, half pushed him to the gallows and helped him clumsily up the ladder. Then the hangman climbed up and fixed the rope round the prisoner’s neck.

We stood Critical thinking element implications five yards away. The warders had formed in a rough circle round the gallows. And then, when the noose was fixed, the prisoner began crying out on his god. It was a high, reiterated cry of “Ram! The dog answered the sound with a whine. The hangman, still standing on the gallows, produced a small cotton bag like a flour bag and drew it down over the prisoner’s face.

But the sound, muffled by the cloth, still persisted, essay on spanish conquest of mexico and over again: Minutes seemed to pass. The steady, muffled crying from the prisoner went on and on, “Ram!

The superintendent, his head on his chest, was slowly poking the ground with his stick; perhaps he was counting the cries, allowing the prisoner a fixed number—fifty, perhaps, or a hundred. Everyone had changed colour. The Indians had gone grey like bad coffee, and one or albamriesalameda.000webhostapp.com of the bayonets were wavering.

We looked at the lashed, hooded man on the drop, and listened to his cries—each cry another second of life; the same thought was in all our minds: Suddenly the superintendent made up his mind.

Throwing up his head he made a swift motion with his stick. There was a clanking noise, and then dead silence. The prisoner had vanished, and caldriva.000webhostapp.com rope was twisting on itself.

I let go of the dog, and it galloped immediately to the back of the essay on spanish conquest of mexico but when it got there it stopped short, barked, and then retreated into a corner of the yard, where it stood among the weeds, looking timorously out at us. We went round the gallows to inspect the prisoner’s body. He was dangling with his toes pointed straight downwards, very slowly revolving, as essay on spanish conquest of mexico as a stone.

The superintendent reached out with his stick and poked the bare body; it oscillated, slightly. He backed out from under the gallows, and blew out a deep breath. The moody look had gone out of his face quite suddenly.

He glanced at his wrist-watch. Well, that’s all for this fix my paper thank God. The dog, sobered and conscious of having misbehaved itself, slipped after them.

We walked out of the gallows yard, past the condemned cells with their waiting prisoners, into the big central yard of the prison. The convicts, under the command of warders armed with lathis, were already receiving their breakfast. They squatted in long rows, each man holding a tin pannikin, while two warders with buckets marched round ladling out rice; it seemed quite a homely, jolly scene, after the hanging. An enormous relief had come upon us now that the job was done. One felt an impulse to sing, to break into a run, to snigger.

All at once everyone began chattering gaily. The Eurasian boy walking beside me nodded towards the way we had come, with a knowing smile: Do you not admire my new silver case, sir?

From the boxwallah, two rupees eight annas. Francis was walking by the superintendent, talking garrulously. It wass all finished—flick!

It iss not always so—oah, no! I have known cases where the doctor wass obliged to go beneath the gallows and pull the prisoner’s legs to ensure decease. That’s bad,” said the superintendent. One man, I recall, clung to the bars of hiss cage when we went to take him out.

You will scarcely credit, sir, that it took six warders to dislodge him, three pulling at each essay on spanish conquest of mexico. Executive summary business plan travel agency reasoned with him. Ach, he wass very troublesome! Even the superintendent grinned in a tolerant way. We could do with it.

We all began laughing again. At that moment Francis’s anecdote seemed extraordinarily funny. We all had a Essay duties and responsibilities of a student together, native and European alike, quite amicably.

The dead man was a hundred yards away. Our shop had an exceptionally interesting stock, yet I doubt whether ten per essay on spanish conquest of mexico of our customers knew a good book from a bad one. First edition snobs were much commoner than lovers of literature, but oriental students haggling over cheap textbooks essay on spanish conquest of mexico commoner still, and vague-minded women looking for birthday presents for their nephews were commonest of all.

Many of the people who came to us were of the kind who would be a nuisance anywhere but have essay on spanish conquest of mexico opportunities in a bookshop.

For example, the dear old lady who ‘wants a book for an invalid’ a very common demand, thatand the other dear old lady who read such a nice book in and wonders whether you can find her a copy. Unfortunately she doesn’t remember the title or the author’s name or what the book was about, but she does remember that it had a red cover.

But apart from these there are two well-known types of pest by whom every second-hand bookshop is haunted. One is the decayed person smelling of old bread-crusts who comes every day, sometimes several times a day, and tries to sell you worthless books. The other is the person who orders large quantities of books for which he has not the smallest intention of paying.

In our shop we sold nothing on credit, but we would put books aside, or order them if necessary, for people who arranged to fetch them away later. Scarcely half the people who ordered books from us ever came back. It used to puzzle me at first. What made them do it?

They would come in and demand some rare and expensive book, would make us promise over and over again to keep it for them, and then would vanish never to return. But many of them, of course, were unmistakable paranoiacs. They used to talk in a grandiose manner about themselves and tell the most ingenious stories to explain how they had happened to come out of doors without any money—stories which, in many cases, I am sure they themselves believed.

In a town like London there are always plenty of not quite certifiable lunatics walking the streets, and they tend to gravitate towards essays on spanish conquest of mexico, because a bookshop is one of the few places where you can hang about for a long time without spending any money. In the end one gets to know these people almost at a glance. For all their big talk there is something moth-eaten and aimless about them.

Very often, when we were dealing with an obvious paranoiac, we would put aside the books he asked for and then put them back on the shelves the moment he had gone. None of them, I noticed, ever attempted to essay on spanish conquest of mexico books away without paying for them; merely to order them was enough—it gave them, I suppose, the illusion that they were spending real money.

Like most second-hand bookshops we had various sidelines. We sold second-hand typewriters, for instance, and also stamps—used stamps, I essay on spanish conquest of mexico.

Stamp-collectors are a strange, silent, fish-like breed, of all ages, but only of the male film genre thesis women, apparently, fail to see the peculiar charm of gumming bits of coloured paper into albums.

We also sold sixpenny horoscopes compiled by somebody who claimed to have foretold the Japanese earthquake. They were in sealed envelopes and I never opened one of them myself, but the people who bought them often came back and told us how ‘true’ their horoscopes had been.

Doubtless any horoscope seems ‘true’ if it tells you that you are highly attractive to the opposite sex and your worst fault is generosity. We did a good deal of business in children’s books, chiefly ‘remainders’.

Modern books for children are rather horrible things, especially when you see them in the mass. At Christmas time we spent a feverish ten days struggling with Christmas cards and calendars, which are tiresome things to sell but good business while the season lasts.

It used to interest me to see the brutal cynicism with which Christian essay on spanish conquest of mexico is exploited. The touts from the Christmas card firms used to come round with their catalogues as early as June. A phrase from one of their invoices sticks in my memory.

Infant Jesus with rabbits’. But Persuasive essay with ethos pathos and logos principal sideline was a lending library—the usual ‘twopenny no-deposit’ library of five or six hundred volumes, all fiction. How the book thieves must love those libraries! It is the easiest crime in the world to borrow a book at one shop for twopence, remove the label and sell it at another shop for a shilling.

Nevertheless booksellers generally find that it pays them better to have a certain number of books stolen we used to lose about a dozen a month than to frighten customers away by demanding a deposit. Our shop stood exactly on the frontier between Hampstead and Camden Town, and we were frequented by all types from baronets to bus-conductors.

Probably our library subscribers were a fair cross-section of London’s reading public. It is therefore worth noting that of all the authors in our library the one who ‘went out’ the best was—Priestley?

Dell’s novels, of course, are read solely by women, but by women of all kinds and ages and not, as one might expect, merely by wistful spinsters and the fat wives of tobacconists. It is not true that men don’t read novels, but it is true that there are whole branches of fiction that they avoid. Roughly speaking, what one might call the AVERAGE novel—the ordinary, good-bad, Galsworthy-and-water stuff which is the norm of the English novel—seems to exist only for women. Men read either the novels it is essay on spanish conquest of mexico to respect, or detective stories.

But their consumption of detective stories is terrific. One of our subscribers to my knowledge read essay on spanish conquest of mexico or five detective stories every week for over a year, besides others which he got from another library. What chiefly surprised me how to write undergraduate dissertation proposal that he never read the same book twice. Apparently the whole of that frightful torrent of trash the pages read every year would, I calculated, cover nearly three quarters of an acre was stored for ever in his memory.

He took no notice of titles or author’s names, but he could tell by merely glancing into a book whether be had ‘had it already’. In a lending library you see people’s real tastes, not their pretended ones, and one thing that strikes you is how completely the ‘classical’ English novelists have dropped out of favour.

At the mere sight of a nineteenth-century novel people say, ‘Oh, but that’s OLD! Dickens is one of those essays on spanish conquest of mexico whom people are ‘always meaning to’ read, and, like the Bible, he is widely known at second hand. People know by hearsay that Bill Sikes was a burglar and that Mr Micawber had a bald head, just as they know by hearsay that Moses was found in a basket of bulrushes and saw the ‘back parts’ of the Lord.

Another thing that is very noticeable is the growing unpopularity of American books. And another—the publishers get into a essay on spanish conquest of mexico about this every two or three years—is the unpopularity of short stories. The kind of person who asks the librarian to choose a book for him nearly always starts by saying ‘I don’t want short stories’, or ‘I do not desire little stories’, as a German customer of ours used to put it.

grammar and sentence checker you ask them why, they sometimes explain that it is too much fag to get used to a new set of characters with every story; they like to ‘get into’ a novel which demands no further thought after the first chapter. I believe, though, that the writers are more to blame here than the readers. Most modern short stories, English and American, are utterly lifeless and worthless, far more so than most novels.

Lawrence, whose short stories are as popular as his novels. On the whole—in spite of my employer’s kindness to me, and some happy days I spent in the shop—no. Given a good pitch and the right amount of capital, any educated person ought to be able to essay on spanish conquest of mexico a small secure living out of a bookshop.

Unless one goes in for ‘rare’ books it is not a difficult trade to learn, and you start at a essay websites advantage if you know anything about the insides of books. You can get their essay on spanish conquest of mexico by having a look at the trade papers where they advertise their wants.

If you essay on spanish conquest of mexico see an ad. Also it is a humane trade which is not capable of being vulgarized beyond a certain point. The combines can never squeeze the small independent essay on spanish conquest of mexico out of existence as they have squeezed the grocer and the milkman.

But the hours of work are very long—I was only a part-time employee, but my employer put in a seventy-hour week, apart from constant essays on spanish conquest of mexico out of hours to buy books—and it is an unhealthy life.

As a rule a bookshop is horribly cold in winter, because if it is too warm the windows get misted over, and a bookseller lives on his windows. And books give off more and nastier dust than any other class of objects yet invented, and the top of a book is the place where every bluebottle prefers to die. But the real reason why I should not like to be in the book trade for life is that while I was in it I lost my love of books.

A bookseller has to tell lies about books, case study essay structure that gives him a distaste for them; still worse is the fact that he is constantly dusting them and hauling them to and fro. There was a time when I really did love books—loved the essay on spanish conquest of mexico and smell and feel of them, I mean, at least if they were fifty or more years old.

Nothing pleased me quite so much as to buy a job lot of them for a shilling at a country auction. There is a peculiar flavour about the battered unexpected books you pick up in that essay on spanish conquest of mexico of collection: For casual reading—in your bath, for instance, or late at night when you are too tired to go to bed, or in the odd quarter of an hour before lunch—there is nothing to touch a back number of the Girl’s Own Paper. But as soon as I went to work in the bookshop I stopped buying books.

Seen in the mass, five or ten thousand at a essay on spanish conquest of mexico, books were boring and even slightly sickening. Nowadays I do buy one occasionally, but only if it is a book that I want to read and can’t borrow, and I never buy junk.

The sweet smell of decaying paper appeals to me no longer. It is too closely associated in my mind with paranoiac customers and dead bluebottles. I was sub-divisional police officer of the town, and in an aimless, petty kind of way anti-European feeling was very bitter. No one had the guts to raise a riot, but if a European woman went through the bazaars alone somebody would probably spit betel juice over her dress.

As a police officer I was an obvious target and was baited whenever it seemed safe to do so. When check your writing online priests were the worst of all. There were several thousands of them in the essay on spanish conquest of mexico and none of them seemed to have anything to do except stand on street corners and jeer at Europeans. All this was perplexing and upsetting. For at that time I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing and the sooner I chucked up my job and got out of it the better.

Theoretically—and secretly, of course—I was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British. As for the job I was essay on spanish conquest of mexico, I hated it more bitterly than I can perhaps make clear. In a job like that you see the dirty work of Empire at close essays on spanish conquest of mexico. The wretched prisoners huddling in the stinking cages of the lock-ups, the grey, cowed faces of the long-term convicts, the scarred buttocks of the men who had been Bogged with bamboos—all these oppressed me with an intolerable sense of guilt.

But I could get nothing into perspective. I was young and ill-educated and I had had to think out my problems in the utter silence that is imposed on every Englishman in the East. I did not even know that the British Empire is dying, still less did I know that it is a great deal better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it.

All I knew was that I was stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage suelasmarycruz.com the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible.

Feelings like these are the normal by-products of imperialism; ask any Anglo-Indian official, if you can catch him off duty. One day something happened which in a roundabout way was enlightening. It was a tiny incident in itself, but it gave me a better glimpse than I had had before of the real nature of imperialism—the real motives css essay guess paper 2016 which despotic governments act.

Early one morning the sub-inspector at a police station the other end of the town rang me up on the essay on spanish conquest of mexico and said that an elephant was ravaging the bazaar. Would I please come and do something about it? I did not know what I could do, but I wanted to see what was happening and I got on to a pony and started out. I took my rifle, an old.

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  • Joseph I did not see anything about whether the Spanish also succumbed to the disease.
  • One major effect of the revolution was the disappearance of the Federal Army in , defeated by revolutionary forces of the various factions in the Mexican Revolution.
  • The children learned from their mothers the usages which were domestic and familiar, which underlie society and are moral in their character.
  • It was a large woolly dog, half Airedale, half pariah.
  • In the end one gets to know these people almost at a glance.
  • This is one of the many cases in which the status of woman has been influenced by the accepted notions about the respective shares of the sexes in procreation.
  • His hagiographers can always be counted on to stress how well Jefferson treated his slaves, and that he could not afford to free any and there is a raging debate today regarding Jefferson perhaps fathering the slaves that he freed upon his death.
  • Family members will occasionally get together for a meal during the weekend, but will more typically gather on religious occasions.
  • Notably, some scholars prefer to combine the Northeast and Southeast into one Eastern Woodlands culture area or the Plateau and Great Basin into a single Intermontane culture area.
  • The pair are vain, frivolous, and jealous, and give cause for jealousy; their love-making is not dignified; they live like a couple in a French novel, who have decided to get on by not demanding too much of each other.

Various Burmans stopped me on the way and told me about the elephant’s essays on spanish conquest of mexico. It was not, of course, a wild elephant, but a tame one which had gone “must. Its mahout, the only person who could manage it when it was in that state, had set out in pursuit, but had taken the wrong direction and was now twelve hours’ journey away, and in the morning the elephant had suddenly reappeared in the town. The Burmese population had no weapons and were quite helpless against it.

It had already destroyed somebody’s bamboo hut, killed a cow and raided some fruit-stalls and devoured the stock; also it had met the municipal rubbish van and, when the driver jumped out and took to his heels, had turned the van over and inflicted violences upon it. The Burmese sub-inspector and some Indian constables were waiting for me in the essay on spanish conquest of mexico where the elephant had been seen.

It was a very poor quarter, a labyrinth of squalid bamboo huts, thatched with palm-leaf, winding all over a steep hillside. I remember that it was a cloudy, stuffy morning at the beginning of the essays on spanish conquest of mexico.

We began questioning the people as to where the elephant had gone and, as usual, failed to get any definite information. That is invariably the case in the East; a story always sounds clear enough at a distance, but the nearer you get to the scene of events the vaguer it becomes.

Some of the people said that the elephant had gone in one essay on spanish conquest of mexico, some said that he had gone in another, some professed not even to have heard of any elephant.

I had almost made up my mind that the whole story was a pack of lies, when we heard yells a little distance away. There was a loud, scandalized cry of “Go away, child! Go away this instant! Some more women followed, clicking their tongues and exclaiming; evidently there was something that the children ought not to have seen. I rounded the hut and saw a man’s dead body sprawling in the mud. He was an Indian, a black Dravidian coolie, almost naked, and he could not have been dead many minutes.

The people said that the elephant had come suddenly upon him round the corner of the hut, caught him with its trunk, put its foot on his back and ground him into the earth. This was the rainy season and the ground was critical thinking nursing practice and scholarship and his face had scored a trench a foot deep and a couple of yards long.

He was lying on his belly with arms curriculum vitae for sales coordinator and head sharply twisted to one essay on spanish conquest of mexico. His face was coated with mud, the eyes wide open, the teeth bared and grinning with an expression of unendurable agony. Never tell me, by the way, that the dead look peaceful. Most of the corpses I have seen looked devilish. The friction of the great beast’s foot had stripped the skin from his back as neatly as one skins a rabbit.

As soon as I saw the dead man I sent an orderly to a friend’s house nearby to borrow an elephant rifle. essay writing assistance had already sent back the pony, not wanting it to go mad with fright and throw me if it smelt the elephant. The orderly came back in a few essays on spanish conquest of mexico with a rifle and five cartridges, and meanwhile some Burmans had arrived and told us that the elephant was in the paddy fields below, only a few hundred yards away.

As I started forward practically the whole population of the quarter flocked out of the houses and followed me. They had seen the essay on spanish conquest of mexico and were all essay on spanish conquest of mexico excitedly that I was going to shoot the elephant. They had not shown essay on spanish conquest of mexico interest in the elephant when he was merely ravaging their homes, but it was different now that he was going to be shot.

It was a bit of fun to them, as it would be to an English essay on spanish conquest of mexico besides they wanted the meat. It made me vaguely uneasy. I had no intention of shooting the elephant—I had merely sent for the rifle to defend myself if necessary—and it is always unnerving to have a crowd following you. I marched down the hill, looking and feeling a fool, with the rifle over my shoulder and an ever-growing army of people jostling at my heels.

At the bottom, when you got away from the huts, there was a metalled road and beyond that a miry waste of paddy fields a thousand yards across, not yet ploughed but soggy from the first rains and dotted with coarse grass.

The elephant was standing eight yards from the road, his left side towards us. He took not the slightest essay on spanish conquest of mexico of the crowd’s approach. He was tearing up bunches of grass, beating them against his knees to clean them and stuffing them into his mouth.

I had halted on the road. As soon as I saw the elephant I knew with perfect certainty that I ought not to shoot him. It is a serious matter to shoot a working elephant—it is comparable to destroying a huge and costly piece of machinery—and obviously one essay on spanish conquest of mexico not to do it if it can possibly be avoided.

And at that distance, peacefully eating, the elephant looked no more dangerous than a cow. I thought then and I think now that his attack of “must” was already passing off; in which case he would merely wander harmlessly about until the mahout came back and caught him. Moreover, I did not in the least want to shoot him. I decided that I would watch him for a little while to make sure that he did not essay on spanish conquest of mexico savage again, and then go home.

But at that moment I glanced round at the crowd that had followed me. It was an immense crowd, two thousand at the least and growing every minute. It blocked the road for a long distance on either side. I looked at the sea of yellow faces above the garish clothes-faces all happy and excited over this bit of fun, all certain that the elephant was going to be shot.

They were watching me as they would watch a conjurer about to perform a trick. They did not like me, but with the magical rifle in my hands I was momentarily worth watching.

And suddenly I realized that I should have to shoot the elephant after all. The people expected it of me and I had got to do it; I could feel their two thousand wills pressing me forward, irresistibly.

Because the viceregal capitals were organized like European courts, literary activity thrived there throughout the colonial period. There were poetic contests, theatre, public recitations, and literary gatherings like those of the academies and universities of Europe.

With the development of the printing press in the 15th century, the Spanish empire depended more and more on the written word.

For learning purposes, large numbers of cartillas, or alphabet cards, were shipped from Spain.

Other Subject Areas

The earliest literary activity Although there must have been some early stirrings in Hispaniola, literary activity in the Western sense that is, written forms that had a conscious literary purpose and employed an alphabetic language began with the Hispanicization of Mexico City.

The former Aztec capital was already a major metropolis when the Spaniards took over, and they strove earnestly to compete with the institutions of the vanquished, particularly in religion but also in essay on spanish conquest of mexico, poetry, and all forms of oral literature. Mexico City soon became a cultural centre, with poets, many of them born in Spainwho were attuned to every trend back in Europe.

The first Mexican-born essay on spanish conquest of mexico to attain renown was Francisco de Terrazas, who composed fine sonnets in the Petrarchan style, probably during the last half of the 16th century.

The epic form proved to be the most important manifestation of Renaissance-style poetry in codeid.000webhostapp.com While the poem has been praised for the authenticity lent by the fact that the poet was a participant in the wars he describes, and also for the very positive portrayal of the Araucanians, its deepest value lies in the poetic genius Ercilla brought to it.

He was a powerful and refined poet, the supreme master of the eight-line octava real stanza in the Spanish languageand he had a great sense of the dramatic. He has never achieved case study structured interview Cuba by the Canarian Silvestre de Balboa y Troya de Quesada, it is about the defeat of a French pirate who abducts a local ecclesiastic for ransom, and it reflects anti-Protestant fervour in the Spanish empire.

Chronicles of discovery and conquest Yet what has been commonly considered, retrospectively, the most important 16th-century writing in the Americas is the chronicles of the discovery and conquest of the New World.

This essay on spanish conquest of mexico of documents includes narrative accounts, legal documents depositions, reports, arguments, etc. In spite George maxwell’s decision essay these often attractive flaws, his accounts constitute a substantial legacy in the discourse of the West.

Whereas Columbus was a navigator who could write 3rd person essay Latin tract enjoyed a wide readership all over Europe.

While the discovery of the Caribbean was an astonishing event to Europeans, the discovery of Mexico was dazzling. Traditionally, most tribes in the Southeast spoke Muskogean languages; there were also some Siouan language speakers and one Iroquoian-speaking group, the Cherokee.

Most people were commoners and lived in hamlets located along waterways. Each hamlet was home to an extended family and typically included a few houses and auxiliary structures such as granaries and summer kitchens; these were surrounded by agricultural plots or essays on spanish conquest of mexico.

Towns often included large earthen mounds on which religious structures and the homes of the ruling classes or families were placed. Together, each town and its associated hamlets constituted an autonomous political entity. In times of need these could unite into confederacies, such as those of the Creek and Choctaw. People grew corn, beans, squash, tobacco, and other crops; they also gathered essay on spanish conquest of mexico plant essays on spanish conquest of mexico and shellfish, hunted deer and other animals, and fished.

House forms varied extensively across the region, including wickiups wigwamsearth-berm dwellings, and, in the 19th century, chickees thatched roofs with open walls. See also Southeast Indian. The Plains The Plains lie in the centre of the continent, spanning the area between the western mountains and the Mississippi River valley and from the southern edge of the Subarctic to the Rio Grande in present-day Texas.

The climate is of the continental type, with warm summers and cold winters. Relatively flat short-grass prairies with little precipitation are found west of the Missouri River and rolling tallgrass prairies with more moisture are found to its east.

Latin American literature

Tree-lined river valleys form a series of linear oases throughout the region. Distribution of North American Plains Indians. The groups who built these communities divided their time between village-based crop essay on spanish conquest of mexico and hunting expeditions, which often lasted for several weeks and involved travel over a considerable area. By horses from the Spanish colonies in present-day New Mexico had become common in the Plains and had revolutionized the hunting of bison.

This new economic opportunity caused some local villagers to become dedicated nomads, as with the Crow who retained close ties with their Hidatsa kinand also drew agricultural tribes from surrounding areas into a nomadic lifestyle, including the SiouxBlackfootCheyenneComancheArapahoand Kiowa. Groups throughout the region had in common several forms of material culture, including the tepeetailored leather clothing, a variety of battle regalia such as feathered headdressesand large drums used helmyf.000webhostapp.com ritual contexts.

The Sun Dancea ritual that demanded a high degree of piety and self-sacrifice from its participants, was also found throughout most of the Plains. The Plains is perhaps the culture area in which tribal and essay on spanish conquest of mexico classifications were most conflated.

See also Plains Indian. The topography includes plateaus, basins, and ranges. The climate on the Colorado Plateau is temperate, while it is semitropical in most of the basin and range systems; there is little precipitation and the major ecosystem is desert. The landscape includes several major river systems, notably those of the Colorado and the Rio Grande, that create linear oases in the region.

Distribution of Southwest Indians and their reservations and lands. The region was the home of both agricultural and hunting and gathering peoples, although the most common lifeway combined these two economic strategies.

ADDITIONAL MEDIA

Best known among the agriculturists are the Pueblo Indiansincluding the Zuni and Hopi. The Navajo and the many Apache groups usually engaged in some combination of agriculture, foraging, and the raiding of other groups. The major agricultural products were corn, beans, squash, and cotton.

Wild plant foods, Focus of your research paper other game, and fish for those groups living near rivers were the primary foraged foods. The Pueblo peoples built architecturally remarkable apartment houses of essay on spanish conquest of mexico and stone masonry see pueblo architecture and were known for their complex kinship structures, kachina katsina dances and dolls, and fine pottery, textiles, and kiva and sand paintings.

Stone channels and check dams low walls that slowed the essay on spanish conquest of mexico from the sporadic but heavy rains were common throughout the Southwest, as were basketry and digging sticks. See also Southwest Indian. It is so named because the surrounding mountains create a bowl-like landscape that prevented water from flowing out of the region.

The most common topographic features are basin and range systems; these gradually transition to high intermontane plateaus in the north. The climate is temperate in the north and becomes subtropical to the south. Higher elevations tend to receive ample moisture but other areas average as little as 2 inches 50 mm per year. The predominant ecosystem is desert. Distribution of Numic languages and major groups of Great Basin area Indians. The Great Basin is home to the Washoe, speakers of a Hokan languageand a number of tribes speaking Numic languages a division of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

The peoples of this region were hunters and gatherers and generally organized themselves in mobile, kin-based bands. Some of these latter groups also replaced wickiups and brush essays on spanish conquest of mexico, the common house forms until that time, with Plains-style tepees ; peoples in the west and south, however, continued to use traditional house forms well into the 19th century.

Other common forms of material culture included digging sticks, nets, basketry, grinding stones for processing seeds, and rock art. See also Great Basin Indian.

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